spine-canvaskit Runtime Documentation

Licensing

Please see the Spine Runtimes License before integrating the Spine Runtimes into your applications.

Getting Started

spine-canvaskit is TypeScript based runtime to load, manipulate and render Spine skeletons with CanvasKit in browser and Node.js enviroments. spine-canvaskit can thus be used both in frontends (to render UI elements) and backends (to render skeletons headlessly).

spine-canvaskit requires CanvasKit +0.39.1 and supports all Spine features except two-color tinting

spine-canvaskit is built on top of spine-core, the TypeScript implementation of the Spine Runtimes core API. See the Spine Runtimes Guide for more information on the core API.

Installation

Note: your spine-canvaskit major.minor version must match the Spine Editor major.minor version from which you export. Please consult our guide on Spine editor and runtime version management for more information.

NPM or Yarn

spine-canvaskit can be added to your project via NPM or Yarn:

npm install @esotericsoftware/spine-canvaskit@^4.2.0
yarn add @esotericsoftware/spine-canvaskit@^4.2.0

spine-canvaskit is an ECMAScript module, which can be consumed natively by Node.js and all modern browsers, or bundled by tools like webpack, rollup, or esbuild. It includes source maps for easier debugging.

Note: To access classes, enums, or functions from the spine-canvaskit module, simply import them, e.g. import { loadTextureAtlas } from "@esotericsoftware/spine-canvaskit"

Vanilla JavaScript

spine-canvas can be added to your vanilla JavaScript project via a script tag sourcing the unpkg CDN:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/canvaskit-wasm@latest/bin/canvaskit.js"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/@esotericsoftware/spine-canvaskit@4.2.*/dist/iife/spine-canvaskit.js"></script>

Enable source maps to debug the runtime's original TypeScript source code.

We also provide minified versions of spine-canvaskit, which you can use by replacing .js with min.js in the unpkg URLs.

<script src="https://unpkg.com/canvaskit-wasm@latest/bin/canvaskit.js"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/@esotericsoftware/spine-canvaskit@4.2.*/dist/iife/spine-canvaskit.js"></script>

Note: if you include spine-canvaskit in your vanilla JavaScript project, you must access all classes, enums, and functions via the global spine object, e.g. spine.loadTextureAtlas() or spine.SkeletonData. The spine object is omitted in the code samples below.

Samples

The spine-canvaskit runtime includes several samples to showcase its feature set.

To run the samples:

  1. Install Node.js
  2. Clone the spine-runtimes repository
  3. In a terminal:
    cd path/to/spine-runtimes/spine-ts
    npm run dev

This will open a browser window and show all spine-ts runtime examples. You can find the spine-canvaskit related samples under the CanvasKit heading.

The following samples are included:

Updating the spine-canvaskit Runtime

Before updating your project's spine-canvaskit runtime, please consult our guide on Spine editor and runtime version management.

To update the spine-canvaskit runtime, simply modify the version string of the spine-canvaskit package in your package.json file and run npm install again. For vanilla JavaScript, update the unpkg URL in the script tag.

Note: If you change the major.minor version of the spine-canvaskit package, you have to re-export your Spine skeletons with the same Spine Editor major.minor version!

Using spine-canvaskit

Asset Management

Exporting for spine-canvaskit

Please follow the instructions in the Spine User Guide on how to

  1. Export skeleton & animation data
  2. Export texture atlases containing the images of your skeleton

Note: spine-canvaskit automatically applies premultiplied alpha to atlas images. Export your atlases without premultiplied alpha!

An export of the skeleton data and texture atlas of your skeleton will yield the following files:

  1. skeleton-name.json or skeleton-name.skel, containing your skeleton and animation data.
  2. skeleton-name.atlas, containing information about the texture atlas.
  3. One or more .png files, each representing on page of your texture atlas containing the packed images your skeleton uses.

Note: You should prefer binary skeleton exports over JSON exports, as they are smaller in size and faster to load.

These are the files you ship with your app.

Updating Spine Assets

During development, you may frequently update your Spine skeleton data and texture atlas files. You can simply overwrite these source files (.json, .skel, .atlas, .png) by re-exporting from the Spine Editor and replacing the existing files in your project.

Ensure that the major.minor version of spine-canvaskit matches the major.minor Spine Editor version you are exporting from. See Spine Versioning for more information.

Initializing CanvasKit

spine-canvaskit relies in CanvasKit for loading and rendering Spine skeletons. Before you can use spine-canvaskit, you must initialize CanvasKit.

In NodeJS or an ES6 enabled browser project:

import CanvasKitInit from "canvaskit-wasm";

const ck = await CanvasKitInit();

Using vanilla JavaScript in the browser in a script tag:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/canvaskit-wasm@latest/bin/canvaskit.js"></script>
<script type="module">
const ck = await CanvasKitInit();
</script>

In the code snippets below, we assume that ck holds a reference to the initialized CanvasKit object.

Core classes

The spine-canvaskit API is built on top of the TypeScript-based, generic spine-core runtime, which provides platform independent core classes and algorithms to load, query, modify, and animate Spine skeletons. The core classes are also part of spine-canvaskit.

Here, we will briefly discuss the most important core classes that you will encounter in your day-to-day use of spine-canvaskit. Please consult the Spine Runtimes Guide for a detailed overview of the Spine Runtimes architecture, core classes, and API usage.

The Atlas class stores the data loaded from an .atlas file and its corresponding .png image files.

The SkeletonData class stores the data loaded from a .json or .skel skeleton file. The skeleton data contains information about the bone hierarchy, slots, attachments, constraints, skins, and animations. A SkeletonData instance is usually loaded by also providing a TextureAtlas from which it sources the images to be used by the skeleton it represents. It serves as a blueprint for creating Skeleton instances. Multiple skeletons can be instantiated from the same atlas and skeleton data, which then share the loaded data, minimizing both load times and memory consumption at runtime.

The Skeleton class stores an instance of a skeleton, created from a SkeletonData instance. A skeleton stores its current pose, that is the position of bones and the current configuration of slots, attachments, and active skin. The current pose can be computed by either manually modifying the bone hierarchy, or, more commonly, by applying animations via an AnimationState.

The AnimationState class is responsible for keeping track of which animation(s) should be applied to a skeleton, advancing and mixing those animations based on the elapsed time between the last and current rendering frame, and applying the animations to a skeleton instance, thereby setting its current pose. The AnimationState queries an AnimationStateData instance to retrieve mixing times between animations, or fetches the default mix time if no mixing time is available for a pair of animations.

spine-canvaskit adds functionality on top of spine-core to make loading, modifying and rendering Spine skeletons straightforward.

Loading assets

Spine atlas and skeleton data files can be loaded via the loadTextureAtlas() and loadSkeletonData() functions respectively.

spine-canvaskit works in any JavaScript environment that CanvasKit is available for, such as NodeJS or the browser. As such, the loader functions are platform-agnostic and require you to provide a function that takes an absolute or relative path and returns a Buffer (NodeJS) or ArrayBuffer (browser) containing the raw, binary contents of the file.

The TypeScript signature of this function is as follows:

readFile(path: string): Promise<any>

For NodeJS, this function can be implemented like shown below:

import * as fs from "fs"

async function readFile(path) {
return fs.readFileSync(path)
}

For browser environments, the function can be implemented like this:

async function readFile(path) {
const response = await fetch(path);
if (!response.ok) throw new Error("Could not load file " + path);
return await response.arrayBuffer();
}

Use the loadTextureAtlas() function to load a .atlas file and its .png page image files:

const atlas = await loadTextureAtlas(ck, "myatlas.atlas", readFile);

The atlas' .png files will be resolved relative to the directory the .atlas file resides in.

Similarily, use the loadSkeletonData() function to load a skeleton data .json or .skel file:

const skeletonData = await loadSkeletonData("myskeleton.skel", atlas, readFile);

loadSkeletonData() can load both .json and .skel files, based on the respective extension in the file name. The atlas is used to source the images needed to render skeletons derived from the skeleton data.

SkeletonDrawable

A SkeletonDrawable encapsulates a Skeleton, which stores the current pose and skin of a skeleton, and an AnimationState, which is responsible for keeping track and applying animations.

Once you have loaded a skeleton's atlas and skeleton data files, you can create one or more SkeletonDrawable instances from them. Note that the SkeletonData implicitely references the TextureAtlas.

Call the SkeletonDrawable constructor to create a new instance:

const drawable = new SkeletonDrawable(skeletonData);

You can access the Skeleton and AnimationState inside the SkeletonDrawable via the respective fields:

// Position and scale the skeleton
const skeleton = drawable.skeleton
skeleton.x = 300;
skeleton.y = 380;
skeleton.scaleX = skeleton.scaleY = 0.5;

// Queue an animation on the animation state
const animationState = drawable.animationState;
animationState.setAnimation(0, "walk", true);

See the Spine Runtimes Guide for a comprehensive discussion of the Skeleton and AnimationState API. Below you'll find bare minimum API usage examples to get you started.

Applying animations

Note: See [Applying Animations]() in the Spine Runtimes Guide for more in-depth information.

The AnimationState lets you queue one or more animations on multiple tracks. Tracks are indexed starting at index 0. Animations on higher tracks overwrite any properties that are keyed in animations in lower tracks. This track concept allows you to playback and mix multiple animations at once.

To set a specific animation on track 0, call AnimationState.setAnimation():

drawable.animationState.setAnimation(0, "walk", true);

The first parameter specifies the track, the second parameter is the name of the animation, and the third parameter defines whether to loop the animation.

You can queue multiple animations:

const animationState = drawable.animationState;
animationState.setAnimation(0, "walk", true);
animationState.addAnimation(0, "jump", false, 2);
animationState.addAnimation(0, "run", true, 0);

The first parameter to addAnimationByName() is the track. The second parameter is the name of the animation. The third parameter defines whether to loop the animation, The final parameter specifies the delay in seconds, after which this animation should replace the previous animation on the track.

In the example above, the "walk" animation is played back first. 2 seconds later, the "jump" animation is played back once, followed by a transition to the "run" animation, which will be looped.

When transitioning from one animation to another, AnimationState will mix the animations for a specificable duration. These mix times are defined in an AnimationStateData instance, from which the AnimationState retrieves mix times.

The AnimationStateData instance is also available through the AnimationState. You can set the default mix time, or the mix time for a specific pair of animations:

animationState.data.defaultMix = 0.2;
animationState.data.setMix("walk", "jump", 0.1);

When setting or adding an animation, a TrackEntry object is returned, which allows further modification of that animation's playback. For example, you can set the track entry to reverse the animation playback:

const entry = drawable.animationState.setAnimation(0, "walk", true);
entry.reverse = true;

See the TrackEntry class documentation for more options.

Note: Do not hold on to TrackEntry instances outside the function you are using them in. Track entries are re-used internally and will thus become invalid once the animation it represents has been completed.

You can set or queue empty animations on an animation track to smoothly reset the skeleton back to its setup pose:

dart
controller.animationState.setEmptyAnimation(0, 0.5);
controller.animationState.addEmptyAnimation(0, 0.5, 0.5);

The first parameter to setEmptyAnimation() specifies the track. The second parameter specifies the mix duration in seconds used to mix out the previous animation and mix in the "empty" animation.

The first parameter to addEmptyAnimation() specifies the track. The second parameter specifies the mix duration. The third parameter is the delay in seconds, after which the empty animation should replace the previous animation on the track via mixing.

All animations on a track can be cleared immediately via AnimationState.clearTrack(). To clear all tracks at once, AnimationState.clearTracks() can be used. This will leave the skeleton in the last pose it was in.

To reset the pose of a skeleton to the setup pose, use Skeleton.setToSetupPose():

drawable.skeleton.setToSetupPose();

This will reset both the bones and slots to their setup pose configuration. Use Skeleton.setSlotsToSetupPose() to only reset the slots to their setup pose configuration.

AnimationState Events

An AnimationState emits events during the life-cycle of an animation that is being played back. You can listen for these events to react as needed. The Spine Runtimes API defines the following event types:

  • Start: emitted when an animation is started.
  • Interrupted: emitted when an animation's track was cleared, or a new animation was set.
  • Completed: emitted when an animation completes a loop.
  • Ended: emitted when an animation will never be applied again.
  • Disposed: emitted when the animation's track entry is disposed.
  • Event: emitted when a user defined event happened.

To receive events, you can register an AnimationStateListener callback with either the AnimationState to receive events across all animations, or with the TrackEntry of a specific animation queued for playback:

const entry = drawable.animationState.setAnimation(0, "walk", true);
entry.listener = {
event: (entry, event) => console.log(`User defined event: ${event.data.name}`),
complete: (entry) => console.log(`Animation loop completed.`)
}

drawable.animationState.setListener({
end: (entry) => console.log(`Animation ${entry.data.name} has ended and will not be applied again.`
});

See the example/animation-state-events.html example.

Skins

Many applications and games allow users to create custom avatars out of many individual items, such as hair, eyes, pants, or accessories like earrings or bags. With Spine, this can be achieved by mixing and matching skins.

You can create custom skins from other skins like this:

// Create a custom, empty skin
const skin = new spine.Skin("custom");

// Add other skins to the custom skin
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("skin-base"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("nose/short"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("eyelids/girly"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("eyes/violet"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("hair/brown"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("clothes/hoodie-orange"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("legs/pants-jeans"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("accessories/bag"));
skin.addSkin(skeletonData.findSkin("accessories/hat-red-yellow"));
skeleton.setSkin(skin);
skeleton.setSlotsToSetupPose();

Create a custom skin with the Skin() constructor.

Next, use the SkeletonData to look up skins by name via SkeletonData.findSkin().

Add all the skins you want to combine into the new custom skin via Skin.addSkin().

Finally, set the new skin on the Skeleton via Skeleton.setSkin() and call Skeleton.setSlotsToSetupPose() to ensure no attachments from previous skins and/or animations are left over.

See the example/mix-and-match.html example.

Setting Bone Transforms

When authoring a skeleton in the Spine Editor, the skeleton is defined in what is called the skeleton coordinate system. Use the Bone.worldToLocal() method to transform touch or mouse coordinates relative to the canvas to the coordinate system of the bone.

This can be useful if you want to drive the position of a bone based on user input.

See the example/ik_following.html example.

Performance

spine-canvaskit uses CavansKit.MakeVertices() and Canvas.drawVertices() to draw the meshes of individual skeleton attachments. While Skia appears to be batching these meshes in the background, further performance improvements could possibly achieved by performing batching of attachment meshes in spine-canvaskit itself.

See the example/micro-benchmark.html example.